Causes and symptoms of myocardial infarction
What is cardiac arrest?
Myocardial infarction -a form of ischemic heart disease. With the development of disease ischemic necrosis myocardium plot, accompanied by total or partial deficiency of blood supply. Over the past 20 years, deaths from this disease among men increased by 60%. Heart attack during that time is very important.
Today heart attack from three decades no longer surprises anyone human. Women up to 50 years, the disease does not attack, although after this age milestone morbidity among women compared with the incidence in men. A person who receives cardiac disability and death among all ill is about 10-12%.
Symptoms of myocardial infarction
Those people who have suffered a heart attack, talk about it as a very serious and terrible. The main symptom of myocardial infarction is severe chest pain. Pain before the strong will of the patient is completely suppressed. In humans, there is a thought about dying. The pain is bothering continually, regardless of physical activity often extends into the shoulder and arm, neck, jaw. The pain can be not only constant but intermittent. In such a situation, it is very important to determine what happens in a timely manner, call the Emergency Brigade, preferably cardiology care, to take all necessary action in this situation. If all of this exercise, it gives a chance to survive for many months and even years.
The main thing is to identify heart attack in young people who even thought does not allow of a possible heart attack and do not represent, as far as this situation is life-threatening.
According to information provided by the American Heart Association, a large number of deaths (90% or more) of a heart attack in people young (up to 55 years) is not in the hospital.According to experts, it turns out this is due to the fact that people don't understand everything that happens to them. Young people did not give the value of pain arising in the chest, and this often causes death. Older people are very watchful refer to any pain arising in the chest area, and when the first symptoms, often not even related to coronary heart disease, call an ambulance or the treating doctor.
Medical practice shows, almost 25% of the patients heart attack occurs without specific symptoms, otherwise it is called "Mute" or "silent ischemia heart attack." However, the lack of symptoms has not said that the heart muscle is damaged. And since people don't feel a threat to their life, the prognosis for his life is negative.
Signs of myocardial infarction
In addition to pain in the sternum, heart attack manifests these symptoms:
- frequent faltering breath;
- neritmičeskoe increased heartbeat;
- our weak pulse in the extremities;
- fainting (sinkope) or loss of consciousness;
- a feeling of weakness, sometimes quite pronounced;
- cold, clammy, hot sweat;
- nausea and sometimes vomiting;
- pallor of the face.
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Symptoms of myocardial infarction in women
A heart attack in women differs from the attack of male. Women have pain during the attack is localized in the upper abdomen, back, neck, jaw. It happens that a heart attack is very similar to heartburn. Very often women first appears weakness, nausea, only then there is pain. This heart attack and sometimes underestimated, completely ignored that and is fatal.
While all of these symptoms and signs give the opportunity to learn a heart attack at the time, but similar symptoms or combinations thereof are found in other diseases. You should still consider that a heart attack is the most deadly, so first of all it is necessary to call neotložku in order to save lives and not to regret after that had not done so immediately. In the article about strokes pays particular attention to what people can help moving before arrival. To do this, you can put under your tongue normal (500 mg) aspirin. Also helps nitroglycerin tablet, but to use it you need to be sure that your blood pressure is not low. As soon as the ambulance arrives, the remnants of pills should be rinsed off with water.
Causes myocardial infarction
Very often, more precisely in 95% of cases, the cause of myocardial infarction is coronary artery thrombosis in the field of atherosclerotic plaque. As soon as the atherosclerotic plaque rupture occurs, its erosion (ulcer formation on the surface of platelets) or crack the inner lining of the vessel beneath the lesion nalipaût platelets and other blood cells. Formed "trombocitarnaâ Cork.
Next, it becomes more dense, growing in size, eventually completely overlaps the lumen of the artery. This phenomenon is called occlusion. With artery fed oxygen to the heart muscle cells, and reserve this oxygen is enough for approximately 10 seconds, and then another 30 minutes of heart muscle remains viable. Next comes a number of irreversible changes of cardiac muscle, at the end of the third to the sixth hour of the beginning of the occlusion of the heart muscle dies on this site.
Among the risk factors that contribute to the development of myocardial infarction, doctors distinguish precisely these:
- existence in coronary artery unstable, fragile and prone to breakage atherosclerotic plaques;
- chronic kidney disease in a patient with a lesion clubockov (vascular Neoplasms of the kidney responsible for filtering the blood and urine of primary education). Typically, such patients have moderate or severe secondary arterial hypertension, it is difficult and expensive medical treatment. Strong high pressure reveals the process of stretching and thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle. Changing the geometry due to arterial hypertension in people with light and srednetâžëloj renal insufficiency increases the risk of heart attacks and greatly reduces the survival rate after attack (2002 data);
- if the parents of the patient heart attacks occurred up to 60 years, then this increases the risk of development of different forms of coronary heart disease at a young age. As shown by recent studies in patients (aged about 19 years!) whose parents have previously suffered heart attacks, coronary vessel wall thickness and their throughput is much worse than it should be at this age.
This and confirms the hypothesis that coronary heart disease is inherited. It is for this reason that people whose relatives died of a heart attack at a young age, should follow a healthy lifestyle, systematically influencing modifiable (available change or elimination) risk factors (see the article about strokes).